Discourse, Figure (Cultural Critique Books) by Jean-Francois Lyotard

By Jean-Francois Lyotard

Jean-Fran?ois Lyotard is famous as probably the most major French philosophers of the 20 th century. even though the vast majority of his significant writing has been translated into English, one vital paintings has formerly been unavailable. Discourse, determine is Lyotard’s thesis. Provoked partly by means of Lacan’s influential seminars in Paris, Discourse, determine distinguishes among the meaningfulness of linguistic indicators and the meaningfulness of plastic arts corresponding to portray and sculpture. Lyotard argues that simply because rational proposal is discursive and artworks are inherently opaque symptoms, yes points of creative which means resembling symbols and the pictorial richness of portray will continuously be past reason’s grasp. A wide-ranging and hugely strange paintings, Discourse, determine proceeds from an attentive attention of the phenomenology of expertise to an bold meditation at the psychoanalytic account of the topic of expertise, based via the war of words among phenomenology and psychoanalysis as contending frames in which to imagine the materialism of awareness. as well as prefiguring lots of Lyotard’s later matters, Discourse, determine captures Lyotard’s passionate engagement with issues past phenomenology and psychoanalysis to structuralism, semiotics, poetry, artwork, and the philosophy of language.

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It would be misinterpreting Freud's lesson, I believe, to conclude simply that since all transcendence of consciousness is imaginary, we must ignore it. Yet it would not heed his lesson at all to found, just as simply, a philosophy of hyperreflection that took from a philosophy of reflection the idea that the whole of the unconscious is in the aim [visie], adding to it only the principle that one can bring to light this unconscious through style alone. Freud's negation, which goes under the name of castration and generates anxiety, produces the transcendence of seeing-which is that of desire; but it also implies the entrance into the structure, into its arche, that is, the set of measured intervals of the law.

Far from promising the reconciliation of signification and meaning, this articulation of the Father-negation and Mother-negation forces one never to be able to think of the one except as the other's transgression. 9 We impinge here on a Freudian problematic that we cannot possibly survey in its entirety, let alone domesticate and put behind bars-which is what philosophy tends to do when it encounters something. But one need not resort to torturing, chaining up his texts to be struck by the fact that Freud's reflection, from the beginning to the end of his career, from 1he Interpretation 0/ Dreams to Moses and Monotheism, centers on the relation between language and silence, signification and meaning, articulation and image, interpreting or constructing commentary and figuring desire.

But these terms do not entertain the same relation to the here as that uniting a word to the other contiguous words of the same language [langue], and even less to the relation uniting a phoneme to its neighbors in a phonological grid. Nor is their correlation reducible to that of the elements of discourse-of the words of a sentence, for example-or even to that of propositions in an argument (which is what Hegel seems to have had above all in mind). The space of indication is neither the grid of the system nor the line of speech.

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