Crystals: Growth, Morphology, and Perfection by Ichiro Sunagawa

By Ichiro Sunagawa

A readable and informative review of the technological know-how of crystal development for complicated scholars and researchers.

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As the order of morphological importance decreases, these values will be lowered among the faces categorized as F faces. The position of ⌬␮/kT** of K or S faces in the PBC analysis is expected to be closer to the origin. 11 Morphological instability The interface is the unique place where crystal growth (and dissolution) takes place. We have classified the interface into rough and smooth in the preceding section, and we have presented the expected growth mechanisms. In crystal growth from the melt phase, a rough interface will take a curved form that follows a curved plane of equal temperature, whereas in growth from the vapor or solution phases, it will follow a curved surface following lines of equal concentration.

The concentration gradient is (␴B—␴S), where ␴B is the bulk supersaturation and ␴S is the surface supersaturation. ␴0 is the surface equilibrium saturation. When the temperature of the aqueous solution is lowered, or evaporation occurs, a supersaturated state results. 6), nucleation of the solute component occurs in the system. Accompanying the nucleation, a more dilute region will appear surrounding the nucleus, and diffusion from the bulk ambient phase will occur due to the concentration difference.

B) Changes in nucleation energy ⌬G as the radius of a nucleus r changes. ⌬G reaches a maximum at rc. The energy required to attain volume ⌬Gv is proportional to r3, whereas the energy gained in creating the surface, ⌬Gs, is proportional to r2. two in melt growth. Most nucleation phenomena in real systems may be regarded as heterogeneous. In contrast to this, it is accepted that homogeneous nucleation plays the essential role in nucleation under microgravity conditions. The critical energy for nucleation is determined by the free energy of the interface (the surface of a nucleus) and the driving force.

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