By Hideaki Senzaki, Satoshi Yasukochi
This booklet comprehensively covers the newest information regarding ventricular–vascular morphology and serve as in congenital center sickness (CHD) assessed by means of a variety of cutting edge methodologies.
Anatomical (morphological) abnormalities in CHD are commonly observed with irregular loading stipulations, which, in flip, reason ventricular and vascular useful impairments. The sensible impairments can also exist independently of the anatomical abnormalities. those (morphological and practical abnormalities) importantly engage to figure out underlying pathophysiology and generate medical signs in CHD. accordingly, certain and specific overview of morphology and serve as is key to higher comprehend and deal with this ailment. fresh advances in know-how have supplied beneficial instruments for this goal, and novel findings are amassing. the data contained right here will supply researchers and clinicians with useful wisdom during this field.
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Extra info for Congenital Heart Disease: Morphological and Functional Assessment
B) An en face image of a tricuspid valve in the closed position. (c) An en face image of a tricuspid valve in the opened position. AL anterior leaﬂet, AO aorta, ARV atrialized right ventricle, LA left atrium, LV left ventricle, LVOT left ventricular outﬂow tract, PL posterior leaﬂet, RA right atrium, RV right ventricle, RVOT right ventricular outﬂow tract, VS ventricular septum 1. Ebstein’s anomaly (Fig. 8): The crucial feature of Ebstein’s anomaly is the rotational displacement of the hinge point of the TV leaﬂet, with maximal apical displacement occurring at the junction of the septal and posterior leaﬂets and no displacement of the anterior leaﬂet.
The chordae tendineae are also involved in fusion, shortening, ﬁbrosis, and calciﬁcation, leading to restricted leaﬂet movement, leaﬂet malcoaptation, and regurgitation . 2 Assessment of Atrioventricular Valve Anatomy and Function in Congenital. . 2 . The functional abnormality of TV disease most commonly presents as tricuspid regurgitation. Isolated TV stenosis is very rare and is observed in countries where rheumatic heart disease is prevalent. Rather, TV stenosis commonly presents as combined lesions of stenosis and regurgitation.
Finally, the nodular thickening of the coaptation zone is formed by the end of the second week after birth . In the mature heart, the mitral valve (MV) leaﬂet consists of four histological layers, the atrialis, spongiosa, ﬁbrosa, and ventricularis, ordered from the atrial aspect to the ventricular side. The atrialis is the surface layer adjacent to the atrium, which is composed of elastic and collagen ﬁbers covered with overlying endothelium. The spongiosa largely consists of extracellular matrix, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, and elastic ﬁbers.