This e-book offers bridge engineers transparent tips on layout and contains 88 info sheets of layout info, charts and money lists.
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Extra info for Concrete Bridge Designer's Manual
21 Bank seats Data sheet No 8 A bridge constructed at existing ground level to span across a road in cutting may need only nominal bank seats if good foundation strata are available at shallow depths. This may give rise to particular problems where negative reactions are likely to develop. “Spillthrough” or “skeleton” abutments are suitable where spread footings are needed at a level well below a bank seat. It is often advantageous to design a footing to offset the foundation in relation to the bearings, because the permanent horizontal loading shifts the reaction.
Undrained (immediate) shear strength of cohesive soils 20 Abutments Data sheet No 7 Mass concrete Economic for small heights, such as where headroom is less than that needed for vehicular traffic. Cantilever Simple shape to form but demanding high concentration of reinforcement in the stem as height increases Stub counterfort Reduces weight of reinforcement compared with cantilever, but calls for more complex shuttering. Counterfort Even more complex shutters with large areas to the side of counterforts.
The heavy finishes in the central reserve may act as a 32 reservoir in which the water collects, discharging slowly on the downhill carriageway so that this pavement surface does not dry out with the rest of the carriageway surface. This can present an icing hazard. Its prevention requires the introduction of a water barrier within the central reservation, together with filter drains in the finishes unless these are formed of materials that are completely impermeable. Parapets Data sheet No 15 P1 Vehicle parapet with plinth 700mm high or more.