By V A Soifer

Diffractive optics includes the manipulation of sunshine utilizing diffractive optical parts (DOEs). DOEs are largely utilized in such components as telecommunications, electronics, laser applied sciences and biomedical engineering.This is an authoritative consultant to the foundations and alertness of computer-designed diffractive optics. participants discover the theoretical features underpinning diffractive optics, together with the most equations in diffraction idea and diffractive optical changes; program of electromagnetic box idea for calculating diffractive gratings, similar equipment in micro-optics; transverse modes of laser radiation and the formation of self-replicating multimode laser beams. The concluding chapters overview key purposes of DOEs, reminiscent of geometrical optics approximation, scalar approximation and optical manipulation of micro gadgets, with extra attention of multi-order DOEs and synthesis of DOEs on polycrystalline diamond films. Published in organization with Cambridge foreign technological know-how Publishing

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**Example text**

For this reason, the grating generates the symmetric distribution of the intensities. This method can be used to produce different phase gratings. They can generate different two-dimensional distributions in relation to the initial gratings. The same procedure was used for producing a phase grating for 49 orders of the same intensity (Fig. 17b). 3. Flat lenses and prisms Reducing the function to the interval The phase function φ(u, v) of optical element is a function describing a b Fig. 16. Phase profile of a two-dimensional nine-order binary grating (fragment) (a).

93) → 0 where h → 0, where [u]h are the values of the function u in the region ωh, and .. U is the norm in the space of the grid functions Uh. 92) results unavoidably in discrepancy δfh: h Lh[u]h = fh + δfh The difference scheme approximate the initial differential problem if δf h Fh → 0 where h→0, where .. F is the norm in the space of the mesh functions Fh. In addition, when the condition h δf h Uh ≤ Ch k is fulfilled, the approximation with the order O (hk) applies. Schemes stable with respect to small perturbations of the initial data are used in practice.

5). 22) kx / z0 ky / z0 sin 2 z0 In the remote zone, the quantity x/z 0 = φ may be regarded as an 2π = ϕ as the reduced angular angular coordinate, and the quantity w l coordinate (Fig. 6). Correspondingly, we investigate the distribution of intensity of the 32 Computer design of diffractive optics d 2b 2a Fig. 5. Example of the 1-D grating. Fig. 6. Diffraction on the amplitude binary grating. 1 |F(u,o)| 2 1 0,5 |F(u,o)| 2 0,5 2π (2M+1)d 2π d a u 2π (2M+1)d 2π d b u Fig. 7. (a, b) Distribution of intensity of the diffraction field with respect to angles.