By T. E. Nordeng, S. Borrmann, A. Heymsfield, S. E. Schwartz (auth.), Paul J. Crutzen, Veerabhadran Ramanathan (eds.)
The goal of this NATO complex examine Workshop was once to debate our present knowing of the function of clouds in weather and chemistry. the diversity of subject matters dis stubborn throughout the workshop incorporated: modeling of clouds in GCMs; observations of the cloud micro actual homes; the water vapor cycle; troposphere-stratosphere trade; function of in-cloud shipping in tropospheric ozone; rules of present and paleo weather through clouds; and anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and amendment of cloud homes. The essence of the discussions is captured within the accompanying precis by means of the rapporteurs and the chapters by way of a number of the audio system. The underlying message is that major development has been made, leading to fascinating new advancements in our belief of the position of clouds within the international method . .. The tropical convective-cirrus cloud structures grow to be a big effect at the weather approach. Micro actual strategies, corresponding to the speed of precipitation and re evaporation of ice debris, appear to keep watch over the massive scale vertical distribution of water vapor that's the dominant greenhouse gasoline. Water vapor information accrued through the valuable Equatorial Pacific test (CEPEX), record the massive moistening impact of deep convection on scales of hundreds of thousands of kilometers. an enormous chemical discovering within the similar quarter was once the remark of super low ozone eight quantity blending ratios of under 10- within the complete troposphere of the important equatorial Pacific extending over a distance of approximately 2000 km. This discovering establishes the Pacific as a massive chemical sink sector for tropospheric ozone.
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7. Brogniez, et al (1994) evaluated the cloud radiative forcing of the particular cirrus that were observed during the ICE experiment. Using the model cloud that they had deduced from their forward scattering measurements they calculated the difference between short wave and long wave radiation fluxes for clear and overcast conditions at the top of the atmosphere, (cf. 2). 1 as a function of cirrus condensed water path for both their model cloud and for volume equivalent spheres. 4 121 Short wave (CSW) and long wave (CLW) cloud forcing in W m -2 for model clouds with spheres and 3-dimensional crystals having different condensed water paths (CWP) for the ICE-89 area in October 1989.
2). Note that ice clouds exhibit much more lateral scattering than water clouds but neither rainbow nor glory except for a slight maximum near 155°. The peaks in the forward lobe correspond to the halos at 22° and 46°. For ice crystals the forward peak is much larger than for spheres due to (1) larger cross sections and (2) direct transmission through the parallel faces of the plates. The relative intensity of the halo gives some information on crystals size. Fig. 3, taken from Brogniez, et al.
Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 111-137. -N. 1989. Solar Radiative Transfer in Cirrus Clouds. Part I: Single- Scattering and Optical Properties of Hexagonal Ice Crystals. J. Atmos. Sci. 46,3-19. Van de Hulst, H. C. 1957. Light Scattering by Small Particles. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 470p. , and Weickmann, H. K. 1979. Scattering of solar radiation by hexagonal ice crystals. Appl. Opt. 18, 2663-267l. Wu, M. C. 1987. A method for remote sensing the emissivity, fractional cloud cover, and cloud top temperature of high-level, thin clouds.