By Guilleminault C. (ed.)
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Extra info for Clinical neurophysiology of sleep disorders
13(8): 3284–3299. Takahashi, S, Kapas, L, Fang, J and Krueger, JM (1999) Somnogenic relationships between tumor necrosis factor and interluekin-1. Am. J. , 276(4 Pt 2): R1132–1140. Van Cauter, E and Copinschi, G (2000) Interrelationships between growth hormone and sleep. Growth Horm. , 10 (Suppl B): S57–62. Van Cauter, E and Plat, L (1996) Physiology of growth hormone secretion during sleep. J. , 128(5 Pt 2): S32–37. Van Cauter, E, Blackman, JD, Roland, D, et al. (1991) Modulation of glucose regulation and insulin secretion by circadian rhythmicity and sleep.
5. , 1987). , 2002). Speciﬁcally, slow-wave sleep results in an increase in plasma renin levels and alpha, beta and theta waves are inversely proportional to plasma renin activity (Luthringer The gastrointestinal system is regulated by both the autonomic nervous system and the enteric nervous system, a complex network of neurons located within the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. During sleep, the function of the gastrointestinal system is reduced most of the time. Salivation, swallowing rate, upper esophageal sphincter pressure, number of primary esophageal contractions, velocity of migrating motor complex propagation in the 26 proximal small bowel, and colonic tone and contractions have all been shown to be reduced during sleep.
The increased sympathetic tone during REM sleep results in vasoconstriction and subsequent reduced muscle blood ﬂow in skeletal muscle vessels. , 1997). , 1991). 9. Endocrine physiology The secretory activity of the endocrine system displays a speciﬁc regulation during NREM sleep and REM sleep. 2. Cutaneous circulation The onset of NREM sleep results in a drop in the set point temperature which results in a vasodilatation in skin vasculature. During REM sleep, a cold environment results in an increase in skin blood ﬂow due to a decrease in neurogenic vasoconstriction.