Climate Change and Mycotoxins by Luis M. Botana, María J. Sainz

By Luis M. Botana, María J. Sainz

Weather switch significantly impacts yield and caliber of foodstuff plants due to alterations in rainfall, temperature and focus of greenhouse gases. This booklet compiles present facts at the impact of weather switch on mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in nutrition plants pre- and postharvest and through garage of nutrients and animal feed. The chemistry and biology of toxin creation is revised and an outlook on keep an eye on and prevention of the toxin's impression on foodstuff and animal feed is given.

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43] White WB, Peterson RG. An Antarctic circumpolar wave in surface pressure, wind, temperature and sea-ice extent. 1038/380699a0. 32 | Josefino C. Comiso [44] Yuan X, Li C. Climate modes in southern high latitudes and their impacts on Antarctic sea ice. 1029/2006JC004067. [45] Bindhoff N, Willebrand J, Casenabe A and Gregory JM. Observations: ocean climate change and sea level. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Marquis M, Averyt K, Tignor MMB, et al. ed. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Sciences Basis, Contributions of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

92 (g C/m2/yr/dec) 50 40 30 20 (e) 2000 2005 2010 (f) 2000 2005 2010 2015 Fig. 17: Plots of yearly primary productivity from 1998 to 2014 in different regions of the Southern Hemisphere as derived using Chlorophyll a concentrations from SeaWiFS and MODIS data, AVHRR surface temperature and other parameters. Since carbon dioxide is taken up more rapidly in colder water, the regions that are most vulnerable are the polar regions. Thus, in the Arctic basin where sea ice is retreating, the presence of more cold open water areas that are being exposed due to ice cover decline means enhanced acidification in the region.

For example, the data can be used to identify regions where harmful algal blooms (sometimes called red tides) occur. In this case, the signal is caused by a bloom of toxic red dinoflagellates. These are normally depicted as high values in plankton concentration, mainly in coastal waters. The data could therefore provide advanced and critical information about onset and magnitude of these blooms. Ocean color data are also invaluable in the assessment of the effects of ocean acidification as discussed in the next section.

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