By Herve Chamley
Clay Sedimentology is a complete textbook divided into six components: - clay minerals and weathering - clay sedimentation on land - foundation and behavior of clay minerals and linked minerals in transitional environments (estuaries, deltas) and shallow-sea environments - assorted origins of clay within the marine atmosphere - post-sedimentary procedures intervening in the course of early and past due diagenesis - use of clay stratigraphic facts for the reconstruction of earlier weather, marine flow, tectonics, and different paleogeographical features. A simple inspiration on such a lot subject matters facing sedimentary clays is gifted and arguable facts and uncertainties from the frontiers of data are discussed.
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Extra info for Clay Sedimentology
1 Leaehing ofinterlayered ions. 2 Migration of oetahedral ions into the interlayered sheet. octahedral cations 0 interlayer cations Hydrolysis, which etymologically means destruction by water, consists practically of the progressive subtraction of ions from the different minerals of the parent rocks. The subtraction statistically concerns first the more mobile ions, like Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Sr. The transition elements tend to be evacuated later (Mn, Ni, Cu, Co, Fe), but before Si. Al is the less mobile element through the hydrolytic processes.
1967, Paquet 1970). Aluminous beidellites from vertisols developed on Togo gneiss and amphibolite (Africa) are reported as neoformation or transformation products by Kounetsron et al. (1977). , open illite, irregular mixed-Iayers) and the preservation of some parent-rock minerals. In arid tropical areas smectite neoformation often becomes exdusive. The pedogenic smectitization can largely extend over the humid intertropical zone, if the drainage conditions are poor and prevent the normal evacuation of ions.
Hydrolysis intervenes actively during the wet season (50-130 cm/y), especially if the tempera- 34 I. 5. Clay mineralogy (%) of a vertisol (blaek tirs) developed on a clayey ealcareous al- luvium ofRharb, Moroeeo. (After Paquet 1970) Depthbelow soil surfaee (em) 0- 10 15-- 30 50- 70 90-110 120-130 140-150 180-190 Chlorite Traees 10 30 30 Illite Traees 10 30 30 Irregular mixed layers 80 60 20 20 Smeetite Kaolinite 90 90 90 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 ture is high. On the other hand, the ions released from minerals tend to be stored and to concentrate in the soil profile during the dry season, particularly if this season is longer than the wet one.