Chemistry of the Lower Atmosphere by Hans R. Pruppacher (auth.), S. I. Rasool (eds.)

By Hans R. Pruppacher (auth.), S. I. Rasool (eds.)

About 3 years in the past Catherine de Berg and that i released a brief article in Nature within which we tried to give an explanation for why the chemistry of the ambience of the Earth is this day so different from that of our neighbor­ ing planets, Mars and Venus. Our surroundings consists customarily of N2 and O with lines of A, H0, CO , zero , and so forth. , whereas the atmospheres of either 2 2 2 three Mars and Venus are virtually completely made from CO , additionally, the Earth seems 2 to be the single one ofthe 3 planets which has oceans ofliquid water at the floor. because the presence of liquid water on the earth is perhaps a necessary requirement for all times to have originated and developed to its current country, the query of the obvious absence ofliquid water on Mars and Venus abruptly acquires major proportions. In our paper in Nature, and later in a extra exact dialogue of the topic (Planetary Atmospheres, in Exobiology, edited by means of C. Ponnamperuma, North Holland Publishing Co. ), we attempted to explain why we think that during the early historical past of the sun method all of the terrestrial planets misplaced the atmospheres of H2 and He which that they had received from the sunlight nebula on the time in their formation. those planets, thoroughly with out atmos­ pheres, just like the Moon at the present time, began collecting new gases that have been exhumed from the inner by way of the graduation of volcanic activity.

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6 '" , Q. 0 40 Z 80 100 ZOO r (microns) (b) Fig. 16. Evolution with time of two spectra of cloud drops growing by collision and coalescence [132]. Curves are labeled in seconds. ) from the CCN sources was found [133,134], but no such effect could be detected in Hawaii 35 ]. An opposite situation was found in the state of Washington, where pulp and paper mills added significant numbers of large and giant hygroscopic nuclei into the atmosphere which destabilized the clouds and caused a precipitation increase downstream of the sources 37 ].

This conclusion is analogous to the conclusion one can draw for the case of maritime aerosols and maritime clouds. Thus, cloud drop formation in the atmosphere can proceed without difficulty, in contrast to ice formation, as we shall see later. In this context, it is instructive to ask in what percentage anthropogenic aerosols enter the local and global budgets of CCN. 5 %supersaturation) produced by fuel combustion, Twomey [95] and recently Squires [110] attempted to roughly estimate the contribution of the anthropogenic CCN to the worldwide CCN budget.

5 %supersaturation) produced by fuel combustion, Twomey [95] and recently Squires [110] attempted to roughly estimate the contribution of the anthropogenic CCN to the worldwide CCN budget. Squires's [110] estimate is summarized in Table 8. In agreement with Twomey [95], Squires concluded that at present the anthropogenic production rate of CCN is only a few per cent of the natural production. However, a continually increasing fuel consumption on a worldwide scale may change this figure upward. Over densely inhabited and heavily industrialized areas, the anthropogenic production of CCN contributes significantly to the total production.

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