Chemistry for pharmacy students : general, organic and by Satyajit D Sarker; Lutfun Nahar, Ph. D

By Satyajit D Sarker; Lutfun Nahar, Ph. D

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F: .. H In the periodic table, the period 2 elements C, N, O, and F have valence electrons that belong to the second shell (2s and three 2p). The shell can be completely filled with eight electrons. In period 3, elements Si, P, S and Cl have the valence electrons that belong to the third shell (3s, three 3p and five 3d ). The shell is only partially filled with eight electrons in 3s and three 3p, and the five 3d orbitals can accommodate an additional ten electrons. For these differences in valence shell orbitals available to elements of the second and third periods, we see significant differences in the covalent bonding of oxygen and sulphur, and of nitrogen and phosphorus.

Atoms, such as nitrogen, oxygen and halogens, that are more electronegative than carbon have a tendency to have partial negative charges. Atoms such as carbon and hydrogen have a tendency to be more neutral or have partial positive charges. Thus, bond polarity arises from the difference in electronegativities of two atoms participating in the bond formation. This also depends on the attraction forces between molecules, and these interactions are called intermolecular interactions or forces. g. boiling points, melting points and solubilities of the molecules are determined, to a large extent, by intermolecular nonbonding interactions.

Generally, conformers rapidly interconvert at room temperature. Conformational isomerism can be presented with the simplest example, ethane (C2H6), which can exist as an infinite number of conformers by the rotation of the C–C s bond. 5 . The most significant conformers of ethane are the staggered and eclipsed conformers. The staggered conformation is the most stable as it has the lowest energy. H H H H H H Rotation about the C-C bond in ethane Visualization of conformers There are four conventional methods for visualization of three-dimensional structures on paper.

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