By A. Ure, C. Davidson
This booklet is very prompt for a broader clinical readership. it may not just locate its position at the bookshelf of analytical chemists and 'speciation researchers' yet may also function a great resource of knowledge for environmental scientists outdoors the specialized neighborhood.
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Extra resources for Chemical Speciation in the Environment
G. AlIII, FeIII, ThIV) which were present mainly in colloidal or particulate form (Benes and Steinnes, 1974). Gel permeation chromatography (or gel ﬁltration) also separates species in solution on the basis of molecular size. The sample is introduced to the top of a column ﬁlled with solvent-swollen, uncharged, cross-linked macro-molecular gel. On elution with solvent, the solutes are partitioned between the stationary and mobile phases and steric effects promote separation of sample components.
Metals associated with high-molecular-weight organic materials have been characterised by passing the sample through a series of membranes which decrease in pore size. Dialysis membranes (made of cellulose acetate, collodion or gelatin) have pore diameters in the 1–5 nm range and fractionation of species is based on their differential rates of diffusion through the pores. It has been noted that negatively charged species diffuse very slowly and the migration of other ionic species can be restricted by the development of a potential across the membrane.
And McDufﬁe, B. V. and Chelex column and batch methods. Anal. , 52, 1433–1439. M. (1977) Trace metal species in fresh waters. , 11, 681–687. M. (1982) Development of physicochemical speciation procedures to investigate the toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc towards aquatic biota. Anal. Chim. Acta, 141, 73–94. M. E. (1976) Trace metal species in seawater. I. Removal of trace metals from seawater by a chelating resin. Talanta, 23, 179–186. M. E. (1980) Chemical speciation in natural waters.