By R.Broom, T.Fox, N.Winter
На Западе Рим, возможно, и пал, но на Востоке Византия продолжала нести римские ценности и дух ещё около тысячи лет. В эту книгу включены специальные правила и детализированные листы армий, включая: ранних византийцев, германские королевства, персов-сассанидов, степных кочевников...
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4 Extracting meaning from text Gregory Grefenstette Introduction Everyone expects computers to be able to understand the meaning of the documents that they manipulate, and common users are disappointed and frustrated when computers do not live up to their expectations. The scientific community is, of course, aware that efforts to formalize knowledge and meaning largely predate the appearance of computers, and that these efforts, which gave rise to the fields of natural history and philosophy, have not been able to create any acceptable system for formalizing meaning, despite myriad propositions.
G. 5 words) are considered for inclusion. Then the sentences are sorted from highest score to lowest score, and the top 5 or top 10 sentences are retained depending on the desired length of the summary, and re-presented in their original order. This technique often provides a satisfactory summary. e. the counts of the most frequent words (other than stopwords) are used to simulate meaning. We will now briefly examine other meaningful tasks, and try to isolate where 'meaning' is approximated.
References Al-Sharief, Sultan (1996) 'Interaction in written discourse. The choices of mood, reference, and modality in medical leaflets', University of Liverpool, PhD dissertation. Arntz, Rainer (1990) 'Uberlegungen zur Methodik einer "Kontrastiven Textologie" ', in Arntz, Rainer and Thome, Gisela (eds) Ubersetzungswissenschaft. Ergebnisse und Perspektiven, Tubingen: Narr, pp. 393-404. Bazerman, Charles (1988) Shaping written knowledge: The genre and activity of the experimental article in science, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.