By Jordi Gual
This succinct survey comprises crucial fiscal coverage matters dealing with ecu governments and company as they attempt to revive development to the region's flagging economic climate. even supposing written commonly in a non technical variety, the e-book comprises the various sharpest research to be had of the industrial difficulties presently dealing with Europe's coverage makers and is vital studying for tutorial or specialist readers attracted to eu fiscal improvement.
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Additional info for Building a Dynamic Europe: The Key Policy Debates
These two basic properties will be present in any parliamentary model. However, the basic institutional details may mean that things move in the right or in the wrong direction. First, the risk of a crisis depends to a certain extent on the rules for the vote of no confidence. Here, research tends to show that the German-style ‘constructive vote of no confidence’ is more desirable than other methods (Diermeier, Eraslan and Merlo, 2003 forthcoming). Indeed, the specificity of that rule is that a government can be brought down only if there is an alternative majority coalition available to govern.
In countries with wide-ranging (‘universal’) welfare state arrangements, income mobility over the individual’s life cycle also ˚ I am grateful for research assistance by Christina Hakansson. Jordi Gual and Giuseppe Bertola have provided helpful comments on a previous version of this chapter. 39 40 Assar Lindbeck ¨ ¨ seems to be relatively strong (Bjorklund and Jantti, 1993). Moreover, it is often hypothesized that high income security contributes to tolerance of continuing reallocation of resources.
We used roll call data in the European Parliament to calculate NOMINATE scores (Poole and Rosenthal, 1997) and estimate each MEP’s ideal point on a two-dimensional space, where the first dimension represents the left–right spectrum and the second represents the pro–anti European aspect. We explored different scenarios explained in more detail in Hix, Noury and Roland (2003). The three most important ones are the following: (1) In the first scenario, we asked what would have been the political affiliation of the Commission president if he had been elected by the Parliament.