By Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Rashmi Avinash Agarwal, Tarun Gupta, Bhola Ram Gurjar
This ebook is meant to function a compendium at the cutting-edge study within the box of biofuels. The ebook comprises chapters on diverse facets of biofuels from popular overseas specialists within the box. The ebook appears to be like at present examine on all elements of biofuels from uncooked fabrics to construction recommendations. additionally it is chapters on research of functionality of biofuels, really biodiesel, in engines. The publication contains case reports that offer insights into the functionality of biofuels in functions equivalent to automobile engines and diesel turbines. The contents of the publication should be worthwhile to graduate scholars and researchers engaged on all points of biofuels. The ebook can be of use to execs and policymakers drawn to biofuels.
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Extra resources for Biofuels: Technology, Challenges and Prospects
Appl Biochem Biotechnol 45(1):521–530 6. Carvalheiro F, Duarte LC, GÃrio FM (2008) Hemicellulose bioreﬁneries: a review on biomass pretreatments. J Sci Ind Res 849–864 7. Cengiz M, Dincturk OD, Sahin HT (2010) Fractional extraction and structural characterization of opium poppy and cotton stalks hemicelluloses. Pharm Mag 6(24):315 8. Chan JMW, Bauer S, Sorek H, Sreekumar S, Wang K, Toste FD (2013) Studies on the vanadium-catalyzed nonoxidative depolymerization of miscanthus giganteus-derived lignin.
Normally, lignin catalytic reduction reactions aim at removal of the extensive functionality of the lignin subunits to generate simpler monomeric compounds like phenols, benzene, toluene, or xylene, which can be then hydrogenated to alkanes (carbon atoms C7–C18) via coupling reactions or used as platform chemicals under appropriate reaction environment. Lignin valorisation is often realized through thermal hydrogenolysis (depolymerisation) which could be base-catalyzed, acid-catalyzed, metallic catalyzed and ionic liquids-assisted depolymerization for synthesis of various phenolics (Table 4).
The microbes utilize the substrates and generate the electrons and protons, and these reducing equivalents move via series of redox mediators towards an available terminal electron acceptor (TEA). This facilitates generation of energy-rich phosphate bonds that are useful for the microbial growth and subsequent metabolic activities which occur inside the cell. Bacteria can communicate with external electron acceptors from the cell to the artiﬁcially placed electrode through direct contact and electron shuttling mediators and through electrically conductive appendages (nanowires/pilin) [56, 59].