By Eric Goodger, Ray Vere
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Extra resources for Aviation Fuels Technology
A number of hydrocracking processes are now available. Since the 1973 oil crisis, coupled with the severe tightening of environmental controls, particularly 29 with respect to air pollution, interest has increased in Europe for this type of equipment. Fuel oil demand has shown a rapid decline , but although total demand for crude oil products has reduced, gasoline is holding to a small volume increase, and aviation turbine fuel is increasing. This means that more conversion units are needed to meet a changing product demand from less crude oil.
Aviation gasoline is produced by blending alkylate, isopentane, catalytically cracked naphthas and an aromatic-rich extract in various proportions depending on the type of blendstock available at the refinery, and on the other products required from that refinery . If, for example, alkylation units were being used as a major means of producing high octane blendstock for motor gasoline, then some of this would be cut to make aviation alkylate. If, on the other hand, the refinery was making an aromatic chemical feedstock, then some of that would be used to achieve the high octane rating requirements necessary to meet the specification .
CU2Cl2 +"2 O2 Cuprous chloride ~ Organic mercaptide Oxygen RSSR + CU2Cl2 + 2 HCI Organic disulphide + 2HCl Hydrochloric acid Cuprous chloride Hydrochloric acid 12 CuCl2 + H2O Cupric chloride Water The first equation shows the sweetening operation, and the second equation the regeneration stage. In fact, there is a series of complex reactions occurring almost simultaneously, but the overall reactions may be represented simply by the above two equations. 4. 2 Merox Sweetening Another method of sweetening often used is the Merox process, developed by Universal Oil Products.