By Daniel Banda, José Moure
Le rêve de transporter, de projeter et d’animer les photographs est peut-être immémorial et l’histoire de ceux qui ont voulu faire vivre ce rêve est déjà longue quand, en 1895, les frères Lumière projettent l. a. vie, prise sur le vif, sur l’écran du cinématographe. Cette anthologie rassemble quelque cent textes qui nous invitent à parcourir une histoire culturelle de l. a. imaginative and prescient, de ses moyens et dispositifs, de l’idée que nous nous faisons du noticeable, des attentes, des croyances et de l’imaginaire qui s’y rattachent, afin de mieux comprendre nos propres façons de voir et de vivre avec les images.
De Platon à Jules Verne, avant le cinéma, sans le cinéma, se croisent les préoccupations philosophiques, artistiques et littéraires autant que sociales, scientifiques et recommendations. Autour des jeux de l’ombre et de los angeles lumière, de l. a. chambre noire, des lanternes magiques, de los angeles fantasmagorie, des panoramas, de l. a. photographie, des machines optiques et des photographs en mouvement, dialoguent, parmi bien d’autres, Vinci, Kepler et Sterne, Kircher, Inés de l. a. Cruz et Leibniz, Robertson, Balzac et Strindberg, et encore Kleist, Wordsworth et Hawthorne, Lichtenberg, Hoffmann, Hugo, Marx et Zola, Arago, Poe, Delacroix et Nadar, Plateau, Baudelaire, Marey et Edison, Villiers de l’Isle-Adam, H. G. Wells et Charles Cros…
Daniel Banda, professeur agrégé, enseigne l. a. philosophie au Lycée Victor Hugo à Paris et l’esthétique à l’université de Paris I Panthéon- Sorbonne. José Moure, ancien élève de l’École normale supérieure, est professeur en études cinématographiques à l’université de Paris I Panthéon- Sorbonne. Ensemble, ils ont publié "Le Cinéma : naissance d’un artwork: 1895-1920" et "Le Cinéma : l’art d’une civilisation: 1920-1960".
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Extra resources for Avant le cinéma: L'oeil et l'image
The seriousness of the moisture removal can be demonstrated by the following data. A safe (moisture condensation free) operation of a circuit inside a ceramic package at -50 °C allows a humidity level of IOppm, which means an atmosphere with 0,05% RH at room temperature. The same for -75 °C is possible only with a moisture concentration level of 0,3ppm. Washing in CFCs and subsequent vacuum bake-out, hot air-knife and convection oven drying were appropriate processes for moisture removal. The replacement of CFCs by water soluble cleaning agents have made the situation more complicated.
Using active silicon as a substrate it is possible to integrate functions like logic, memory, test and protection circuits and/or high speed devices in the substrate and mount other components on top. In order to use an active silicon substrate the adventage of the extra functions and the smaller size must balance the extra cost for the substrate. In this paper we will describe three applications where active substrates are beeing used: * * * CMOS logic: MIL-1553/1760 Data Bus from Micro Circuit Engineering in UK Memory: CPU module with memory in the substrate from IMC/Lucas Electronics in UK Test and protection circuits: Intelligent power module from IMC/Saab Combitec 53 W.
This is probably due to the fact that the signal ground plane is gridded. The grid openings are 600 microns square, and the plane is approximately filled to 75 %. In the cyanate ester circuit, which doesn't show any ripple, the signal ground plane is solid. It is possible that a grid with smaller openings would decrease the ripple but that can be difficult from a manufacturing point of view. A solid groundplane would cause problems with warpage and mechanical stress in the substrate. The insertion loss per wavelength is given in table 2.