Allergic and Respiratory Disease in Sports Medicine by John M. Weiler

By John M. Weiler

This distinctive source provides allergic and airway stipulations visible in leisure and aggressive athletes-covering subject matters from exercise-induced bronchial asthma to chilly air-induced rhinitis.

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Example text

Thus, this has most often been inferred by pulmonary wedge pressures (Ppw). There is some indication that the major pressure drop in the pulmonary circulation may occur in the pulmonary capillaries. In addition, it is difficult to measure Ppw during exercise owing to large fluctuations in intrathoracic pressures; thus, these measurements need to be viewed with caution. Resting Ppa range between 8 and 28 mm Hg between diastole and systole, with a mean pressure of 14 mm Hg [89]. The Ppw pressures average 3–15 mm Hg, with a mean of 5–8 Page 24 mm Hg [90].

For every proton that combines with a bicarbonate molecule, one additional molecule of CO2 is formed. As shown in Fig. 2, this CO2 production is in addition to the ongoing metabolic CO2 load produced in the aerobic breakdown of fuels and provides an additional load for pulmonary clearance. Aerobic fibers produce CO2 in units approximately equal to O2 consumption; however, the more glycolytic fibers use little O2 and produce CO2 at approximately fourfold higher rates [116]. Thus, as these fibers are recruited with progressive exercise, a substantially greater CO2 load will be presented to the lung for clearance.

D. P. Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Page 1 1 Respiratory System Responses to Dynamic Exercise Bruce D. Johnson and Kenneth C. Beck Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota I. INTRODUCTION The transition from rest to exercise requires a host of acute adaptations in the respiratory system to maintain homeostasis. These adaptations include (a) the regulation of the depth and frequency of breathing, through the activation of the respiratory muscles; (b) the conditioning of the airways, through warming and humidification of the air; (c) the minimization of the work and oxygen cost of breathing by increases in extra- and intra-thoracic airway diameter and by regulating end-expiratory lung volume; and (d) the optimization of pulmonary O2 transfer by increases in alveolar–capillary surface interface and by increases in lymphatic circulation which minimizes lung water accumulation.

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