By Theodore Von Kármán
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Extra info for Aerodynamics
Hence, τ =μ dV dy where dV/dy is the velocity gradient. In reality, μ is not really a constant; it is a function of the temperature of the fluid. 11. From the above equation, we deduce that in regions of a flow field where the velocity gradients are small, τ is small and the influence of friction locally in the flow is small. On the other hand, in regions where the velocity gradients are large, τ is large and the influence of friction locally in the flow can be substantial. 1 Units Two consistent sets of units will be used throughout this book, SI units (Systeme International d’Unites) and the English engineering system of units.
These are dimensionless force and moment coefficients, defined as follows. Let ρ∞ and V∞ be the density and velocity, respectively, in 23 Anderson-98101 24 book November 4, 2009 PA R T 1 21:42 Fundamental Principles the freestream, far ahead of the body. , pounds per square foot or newtons per square meter). In addition, let S be a reference area and l be a reference length. The dimensionless force and moment coefficients are defined as follows: CL ≡ Lift coefficient: Drag coefficient: Normal force coefficient: Axial force coefficient: Moment coefficient: L q∞ S D CD ≡ q∞ S N CN ≡ q∞ S A CA ≡ q∞ S M CM ≡ q∞ Sl In the above coefficients, the reference area S and reference length l are chosen to pertain to the given geometric body shape; for different shapes, S and l may be different things.
Maneuverability of ships. To increase the speed of a ship, it is important to reduce the resistance created by the water flow around the ship’s hull. Suddenly, the drag on ship hulls became an engineering problem of great interest, thus giving impetus to the study of fluid mechanics. This impetus hit its stride almost a century later, when, in 1687, Isaac Newton (1642–1727) published his famous Principia, in which the entire second book was devoted to fluid mechanics. Newton encountered the same difficulty as others before him, namely, that the analysis of fluid flow is conceptually more difficult than the dynamics of solid bodies.