By P.T.N. Spencer-Phillips, U. Gisi, A. Lebeda
P. T. N. SPENCER-PHILLIPS Co-ordinator, Downy mold operating workforce of the foreign Society for Plant Pathology collage of the West of britain, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, united kingdom electronic mail: [email protected] it's a very nice privilege to put in writing the preface to the 1st expert ebook on downy mildews because the significant paintings edited via D. M. Spencer in 1981. the belief for the current e-book arose from the Downy mold Workshop on the overseas Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP) held in Edinburgh in August 1998. Our goal used to be to ask studies on chosen elements of downy mould biology from overseas specialists, and hyperlink those to a chain of similar brief contributions reporting new facts. No try out has been made to hide the breadth of downy mold examine, yet we are hoping that extra themes could be integrated in destiny volumes, in order that this turns into the 1st of a chain following the 5 yr ICPP cycle.
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Extra info for Advances in Downy Mildew Research
Magarey, Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations, Queensland) that Pachymetra occurs in the native Queensland panicoid grass, Imperata cylindrica var. major (Blady Grass). The absence of any associations with southern temperate grasses makes it unlikely that there was early evolution of these graminicolous fungi from Gondwanaland, which would have required isolated, three-pronged migration and evolution in Africa, India, and Australasia (but not southern South America). A centre of radiation from Africa (Williams, 1984) or India could only be supported if the Sclerosporales are considered to be of late Neogene (Miocene - Pliocene) or Quaternary origin.
Present-day Phytophthora species embrace a wide range of habits, from root parasites EVOLUTION OF THE DOWNY MILDEWS 39 to leaf and fruit pathogens; the monotypic genera Peronophythora on Litchi (Sapindaceae) and Trachysphaera on Theobroma (Malvaceae [formerly Sterculiaceae]), Citrus (Rutaceae, Watson, 1971), Coffea (Rubiaceae), Persea (Lauraceae) (Spaulding, 1961) and Musa (Musaceae, Gingiberales - Kader, 1999) are genera which have been separated from Phytophthora sensu stricto on morphological criteria (branched sporangiophore and spiny sporangia respectively) as well as their habit, restricted to fruits, but may be encompassed by Phytophthora sensu lato.
The Central Atlantic and Tethys Oceans (including the Mediterranean Sea) were also a barrier to north-south migration, at least for larger animals (Coryndon and Savage, 1973), but perhaps not for angiosperms between West Africa and Spain. Australasia was isolated, drifting northwards with a previously warm-temperate-adapted biota. It was only from the Oligocene that land bridges permitted tropical animals and plants to migrate southward, a migration which continued through the Quaternary. All groups of herbaceous plants, exposed to high UV and photosynthetic wavelengths, have developed protective mechanisms based on secondary metabolite production.