By Gould R.F. (ed.)
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One bothersome, but generally applicable, method of testing for purity is carried out by recrystallizing a sample of the product being tested, and comparing the recrystallized material with that retained in the mother liquor. To this end, the mother liquor may be fractionally evaporated, whereupon the impurities, as a rule, will become so concentrated in the last mother liquor that they are easily detected. Of course, the control of purity must be based not only on the physical properties discussed above, but also on the chemical behavior of the substance being tested.
Of course, the control of purity must be based not only on the physical properties discussed above, but also on the chemical behavior of the substance being tested. It is extremely difficult to generalize on this point, however. The testing methods must be adapted to the chemical properties of the particular compound being tested and of the impurities suspected to be present; all this requires a general knowledge of the reactions of organic chemistry, which cannot be supplied here. Mention might be made of only one reaction, namely, the formation of azo dyes.
Practically, one is limited to paraffin oil which is quite satisfactory for moderate temperatures. It rapidly turns dark at higher temperatures, however, so that it must be renewed frequently when melting points around 200°C. are being determined. An enclosed apparatus is more suitable under these conditions because it permits the use of concentrated sulfuric acid as the bath fluid. Sulfuric acid remains colorless even when heated 44 INTERMEDIATES to its boiling point (about 280°) and, if it should become colored due to contamination by organic materials, it can be decolorized by adding a small particle of saltpeter.