A history of the thermometer and its use in meteorology by W. E. Knowles Middleton

By W. E. Knowles Middleton

This historical past of the thermometer contains controversy approximately its invention, the tale of other scales, Fahrenheit and centigrade, and the heritage of the sluggish clinical then renowned figuring out of the idea that of temperature. now not until eventually 1800 did humans drawn to thermometers start to see sincerely what they have been measuring, and the impetus for making improvements to thermometry got here mostly from examine of the weather―the liquid-in-glass thermometer grew to become the meteorologist's device ahead of that of the chemist or physicist. this glorious introductory research follows the improvement of indicating and recording thermometers until eventually contemporary occasions, emphasizing meteorological applications.

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APPLICATIONS OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS The MHD equations are a set of highly coupled equation describing the complicated electromagnetic interactions between particles and fields. For instance, charge current is the source of magnetic field according to the Maxwell's equation but the presence of magnetic field influences the current of charged particles as described by the generalized Ohm's law Plasma Physics 43 and the momentum transfer equation. The determination of the behaviour of a specific physical variable in the set of equations requires decoupling of it from other variables.

It is known as the Krook collision term (some text refer it as the BKG collision term after Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook in 1954) and the model is called Krook model or relaxation model. More elaborated understanding on the nature of collision term requires discussions on the correlation between the interacting particles. 106) Since the distribution function f k (x, v, t) describes the probability of a particle of species k staying at a point in the phase space at a moment of time t, if the k type particle does not interact with the l type, their distributions will not depend on each other.

Thus, the net number of particles entering or leaving the phase space element Δ V by following their trajectories in the time interval Δ t is zero. This is known as Liouville’s theorem and it is only valid for the cases that the processes of particle collisions, particle loss and production and radiation losses can be neglected. For non-zero particle collisions, some particles will scatter in or out the phase space volume element d3xd3v by collisions rather than exactly obeying the Liouville’s theorem.

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